Lualualei Ionogram at
1:52 pm Hawaiian Time
on 03/02/2024
Updates every 7.5 minutes
Vertical Scale: Altitude in km
Horizontal Scale: Freq. in Mhz.
• F2 layer is a thin black line, often embedded
   in a red or green line.

• Propagation is best on frequencies having multiple
   horizontal reflecting red/green layers.
• F2 layers with higher altitudes produce weaker signals
   than F2 layers with lower altitudes. (350 km for example)
• A thick E layer (below 150 km) can produce
   excellent propagation when there is no F2 layer.
• Vertical "rain" indicates a weak reflecting layer
   with increased atmospheric noise.
• Vertical artifacts below 150 km are foreign or
   domestic broadcast stations.

Ionogram provided by UML Space Science Lab

Image Size: 50692