Lualualei Ionogram at
16:52 UTC on 01/24
Updates every 7.5 minutes
Vertical Scale: Altitude in km
Horizontal Scale: Fkc. in Mhz.
• Propagation is best on frequencies having multiple
   reflecting layers.
   
• Vertical "rain" indicates a weak reflecting layer
   with increased atmospheric noise.
   
• Vertical artifacts below 150 km are forign or
   domestic broadcast stations.
   
• A thick E layer (below 150 km) can produce
   excellent propagation when there is no F2 layer.
   
Ionogram provided by UML Space Science Lab